Some industrial sectors such as surface treatments, in particular the galvanic industry, produce large quantities of wastewater polluted by heavy and non-heavy metals. However, industries are not the only cause: heavy metals can enter into the groundwater table also due to the acid rain that penetrates the soil and eventually contaminates rivers, seas and water sources.
Examples of heavy metals include mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) and some of them, for example copper, Selenium, zinc are essential for maintaining the metabolism of the human body.
At low concentrations, heavy metals in water are not dangerous for livings. However, at high concentrations they cause pollution and toxicity, making it necessary to eliminate heavy metals from water.
Captive Systems, by exploiting the ability to functionalize ad hoc magnetic fluids, offers treatment solutions for the elimination of heavy metals from water such as zinc, nickel, iron and litium.
The technology also allows the removal of precious metals such as copper, gold and silver. The possibility of desorbing the removed compound after appropriate washing offers the possibility of recovering it and obtaining second-generation raw materials.